Albert Einstein was born in Ulm in South Germany on 14th March 1879. His family moved to Italy after his father's business went under. Einstein studied at the Institute of Technology in Zurich. He published four scientific papers, one looking at his Theory of Relativity and his equation of E=mc2 which related mass and energy.
In 1909, Einstein became professor of Theoretical Physics at Zurich, in 1911 professor of Theoretical Physics at the German University of Prague and then returned to the Institute of Technology in Zurich in 1912. In 1914, Einstein was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin. Became a German citizen a year later.
In 1916, he published his Theory of General Relativity. He then received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921, for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect and his work in the field of theoretical physics. During the 1920s, Einstein lectured in Europe, North and South America and Palestine.
However, being Jewish Einstein increasingly became the focus of hostile Nazi propaganda. In 1933, the Nazis took power in Germany, Einstein then emigrated to America. He accepted a position at the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton and took US citizenship.
In 1945, Einstein retired from the institute but still worked for the rest of his life on his theories. He continued to be in a peace movement. Although on 18th April 1955 in Princeton, New Jersey, Einstein died.